NPR新闻[翻译]:阿尔茨海默氏症研究显示 发病情况或存在种族差异_2019年NPR News Reports_VOA英语网

发表时间:2019-01-09内容来源:VOA英语学习网

AUDIE CORNISH, HOST: Alzheimer's disease poses a special risk to African-Americans. Studies show they're up to twice as likely as white Americans to develop the disease. Now NPR's Jon Hamilton reports scientists have found evidence of a biological difference that might help explain the racial disparity.

JON HAMILTON, BYLINE: Most of what scientists know about Alzheimer's comes from studies of white people. And that's a problem, says John Morris, a researcher at Washington University in St. Louis.

JOHN MORRIS: We know relatively little about whether Alzheimer's disease is manifested in a identical way in underrepresented groups, such as African-Americans or Latino or Asians.

HAMILTON: So Morris and a team of researchers have been reaching out to the African-American community in St. Louis. And that effort led to a study that included 173 black participants as well as more than 1,000 whites. Morris says about a third of all patients were in the early stages of dementia.

MORRIS: So we set out to see if the disease process seems to be the same in both racial groups.

HAMILTON: The study used brain scans and samples of spinal fluid to look at the biological hallmarks of Alzheimer's, amyloid plaques and tangles made up of proteins called tau. Morris says blacks and whites were no different when it came to plaques.

MORRIS: However, the tau proteins were notably different.

HAMILTON: Spinal fluid from African-Americans contained lower levels of tau protein. And yet, these lower levels do not appear to indicate a lower risk of Alzheimer's in a black person the way they do in a white person. Morris says the finding, which appears in the journal JAMA Neurology, could be a big deal.

MORRIS: It implies that the biological mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease may be very different in racial groups. And if so, the way we try to diagnose and treat may be race-dependent.

HAMILTON: Morris says a biological difference might also help explain why African-Americans appear more likely to develop Alzheimer's. The study was accompanied by an editorial from Lisa Barnes, a researcher at Rush University in Chicago.

Barnes says she's excited that the research was done at all。 However, she says the results need to be confirmed by a study that includes many more African-Americans。 And that will be a challenge。

LISA BARNES: When you try to go to populations that have been sort of marginalized and abused by past research, it becomes very, very difficult.

HAMILTON: Barnes says one way to increase the numbers is for research centers to work together on studies.

BARNES: If we start to pool our numbers together, we'll be able to do more than just one center alone.

HAMILTON: And Barnes says researchers will also have to reach out to groups that have been hesitant to take part in scientific studies.

BARNES: We really need the minority communities to be involved as well and to really, you know, have a voice in what we're finding and to really walk this path with us. You know, we can't do it by ourselves.

HAMILTON: Barnes hopes the new study represents a step toward better collaboration. Jon Hamilton, NPR News.

参考译文:

主持人奥迪·科尼什:阿尔茨海默氏症对非洲裔美国人构成一种特别的风险。研究表明他们患这种疾病的可能性是美国白人的两倍。据NPR新闻的乔恩·汉密尔顿报道,科学家发觉了生物差异的证据,这可能有助于解释患这种病的种族差异。

连线记者乔恩·汉密尔顿:科学家对阿尔茨海默病的了解大多来自对白人的研究。圣路易斯华盛顿大学的研究员约翰·莫里斯说,这是一个问题。

约翰·莫里斯:相对而言,我们对阿尔茨海默氏症在非裔美国人、拉丁美洲人或亚洲人等代表性不足的群体中是否以相同的方式表现晓之甚少。

汉密尔顿:所以莫里斯和一组研究人员一直在接触圣路易斯的非裔美国人社区的黑人。研究人员做了一项包括173名黑人参与者和1000多名白人参与者的研究。莫里斯说,大约三分之一的患者处于痴呆症的早期阶段。

莫里斯:所以我们开始研究这两个种族的疾病过程是否相同。

汉密尔顿:这项研究利用脑部扫描和脊髓液样本来观察阿尔茨海默氏症的生物学特点、淀粉样斑块和由tau蛋白构成的缠结。莫里斯说,黑人和白人在淀粉样斑块上没有什么不同。

莫里斯:然而,tau蛋白水平明显不同。

汉密尔顿:非裔美国人的脊髓液中tau蛋白含量较低。然而,这些较低的水平并不意味着黑人患老年痴呆症的风险比白人低。莫里斯说,这项发表在《美国医学会神经学期刊》上的发觉可能是一件大事。

莫里斯:彩53彩票这意味着阿尔茨海默氏症的生物学机制在不同种族群体中可能是非常不同的。如果是这样的话,我们诊断和治疗阿尔茨海默氏症的方法可能得依据种族挑选。

汉密尔顿:莫里斯说,生物学上的差异也可能有助于解释为什么非洲裔美国人似乎更容易患老年痴呆症。芝加哥拉什大学的研究人员丽莎·巴恩斯发表了一篇社论,配合了这项研究。

巴恩斯说,她很高兴这项研究终于完成了。不过,她说,要证实这项研究结果,还需要研究更多非洲裔美国人的情况。这将是一个挑战。

丽萨·巴恩斯:当你试图去研究那些被过去的研究在一定程度上边缘化和虐待的人群时,事情就会变得非常非常困难。

汉密尔顿:巴恩斯说,增加这一数字的一种方法是让研究中心共同进行研究。

巴恩斯:如果我们开始把我们的数据集中起来,我们就能做不止一个中心。

汉密尔顿:巴恩斯说,研究人员还必须接触那些不愿参与科学研究的群体。

巴恩斯:我们真的需要少数民族社区的人也参与进来,你晓道,让那些人在我们的研究中拥有发言权,和我们一起走这条路。你晓道,我们自己是完不成这个研究的。

汉密尔顿:彩53彩票巴恩斯期望这项新研究代表着向更好的合作迈出了一步。NPR新闻,乔恩·汉密尔顿报道

来自:VOA英语网 文章地址: http://www.healingbin.com/19/01/NPR09081631me.html